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Hydrogen Production

Report Abstract

Hydrogen (H2) consumption has increased quite substantially during the past ten years or so. The major reason for that is the steep rise in the demand for refineries, which are now the largest consumer of H2, surpassing the market of one-time leader ammonia (see market details in Chapter 3). This change in the H2 market stems primarily from the imposition of stricter fuels quality standards, use of sourer crudes, and deeper hydroprocessing requirements of the refinery products.
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Materials and Chemicals for New Energy Generation

Published January 2007

Report Abstract

Alternative energy—especially sustainable energy—has attracted the attention of many in government and industry. It is seen as a way of reducing reliance on fossil fuels and reducing greenhouse gas generation.
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Gasoline Octane Improvers/Oxygenates

Published April 2006

Report Abstract

Gasolines with an octane rating that satisfies market requirements are produced in refineries by blending various refinery streams that differ in composition, boiling range and octane ratings. The octane number is an expression of the antiknock property of gasoline and is defined as the percentage, by volume, of isooctane (assigned an octane number of 100) that must be mixed with n-heptane (assigned an octane number of 0) in order to match the knock intensity of the fuel that is undergoing test. Until recently, methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) was the predominant oxygenate used worldwide; however, a major shift to alternative oxygenates such as ethyl alcohol (ethanol) and ETBE is starting to occur.
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Eco-Efficient Chemical Processes

Published September 2007

Report Abstract


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Near Zero Based Sulfur Diesel Fuel

Published April 2008

Report Abstract

This report contains preliminary process designs and cost estimates for the production of four heterocyclic nitrogen compounds:

  • pyridine
  • 3-picoline
  • 2-picoline
  • cyanuric acid.
Pyridine and 3-picoline are coproduced by reacting acetaldehyde, formaldehyde and ammonia in the vapor phase over a silica-alumina catalyst. 2-Picoline is manufactured from acrylonitrile and acetone in a separate plant section.
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Green Building Materials

Published December 2007

Report Abstract

For centuries, humans have impacted their environment in ways both large and small. Most of this environmental impact has stemmed from the basic human need for shelter. In creating shelter, mankind has had an effect on the environment—cutting trees, clearing land, and creating waste by-products, as well as bringing about other unintentional environmental consequences.
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